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22.02(06.03).1857 — 14.09.1928

Российский ботаник, почвовед и географ. Ученик А. Н. Бекетова и В. В. Докучаева. В 1883 году окончил Петербургский университет. С 1885 года работал в департаменте земледелия министерства государственных имуществ и участвовал в многочисленных экспедициях по России. С 1895 года работал в Петербургском ботаническом саду и одновременно в Петербургском университете; с 1905 года — профессор Новороссийского (Одесского) университета.

Исследования в области ботанической географии посвящены вопросам взаимоотношения леса и степи, леса и тундры. В труде „Пределы лесов на юге России“ (1894) объяснил безлесие степей высокой щёлочностью почвы и подпочвы, связанной в первую очередь с сухим климатом, а надвигание леса на степь — выщелачиванием почвы у лесных опушек. В другой работе „Пределы лесов в полярной России по исследованиям в тундре тиманских самоедов“ (1911) Танфильев объяснил безлесие тундры заболачиванием лесных опушек и последующим развитием вечной мерзлоты, губящей корни деревьев. Ему принадлежит также ряд трудов по исследованию болот, в которых дано подробное описание истории образования болот. Много сделал в области ботанико-географического картирования. Его работа „Главнейшие черты растительности России“ (1902) является одной из первых сводок по растительному покрову страны; ему принадлежит также сводка по географии и истории культурных растений. В области географии последовательно разрабатывал докучаевское учение о зонах природы, предложил одну из первых схем физико-географического районирования Европейской России (1897) и всей России (1903); автор сводного труда „География России“ (4 книги, 1916—1924). Развивая направление Докучаева в почвоведении, разработал новые методы исследования в этой области.

Был активным деятелем многих научных обществ; с 1911 года — президент Новороссийского общества естествоиспытателей. Именем Танфильева назван остров в группе Курильских островов.

Биографический словарь деятелей естествознания и техники. Т. 2. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1958. С. 260.

Гавриилъ Ивановичъ ТАНФИЛЬЕВЪ.

Географiя Россiи.

 

Часть I. Введенie.
Исторiя изслѣдованiя. Учрежденiя и изданiя. Картографiя.

© 2008—2017 Фонд „Математические этюды“. Коммерческое использование запрещено.
Поддержка: Фонд „Династия“, Математический институт им. В. А. Стеклова РАН.
Идея: Николай Андреев. Реализация: Роман Кокшаров.