Закрыть
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
Mathesis
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Alexander SMITH
1865 — 1922

Американский химик. Профессор в университете Чикаго (1894—1911). Глава химического факультета университета Коламбия (1911—1919). Президент Американского химического общества.

М. А. Блох. Биографический справочник: Выдающиеся химики и учёные XIX и XX столетий, работавшие в смежных с химией областях науки. Т. 2. — Л., 1931. С. 693.

1876 — 1973

Старший ассистент химической лаборатории, приват-доцент Новороссийского (Одесского) университета (1913—1918). Затем работал в Тбилисском университете, профессор, заведующий кафедрой неорганической химии.

Iсторiя Одеського унiверситету за 100 рокiв. — Киïв, 1968. С. 232.

Преподавал естествознание и арифметику в гимназии М. М. Иглицкого (И. Р. Рапопорта), физику — в частной женской гимназии А. Е. Гецельд.

I. E. Рiкун. Видавництво „Маthеsis“ (1904—1925): Матерiали до iсторiï та каталог книг. — Киïв: Книжкова палата Украïни, 2002.

11.07.1850, Тифлис (Тбилиси) — 23.03.1927, Тифлис (Тбилиси)

Советский химик, член-корреспондент АН СССР (1927). Окончил Новороссийский (Одесский) университет (1872). Работал там же (с 1885 года — профессор), в 1918—1927 годах — ректор Тбилисского университета, одним из организаторов которого он был.

Исследования посвящены непредельным органическим кислотам и неорганическим пероксидам. Изучал (1878—1881) строение и реакционную способность акриловой, кротоновой, изокротоновой, ангеликовой, тиглиновой кислот и их производных. Открыл (1880) независимо от Р. Эрленмейера глицидную кислоту и установил её структурную формулу. Впервые синтезировал (1880) β‑аминомолочную кислоту, названную им изосерином. Совместно с Л. В. Писаржевским нашёл (1889), что пероксидные неорганические соединения и надкислоты содержат группировку атомов кислорода, характерную для пероксида водорода, установил (1897) строение пероксидов металлов и показал (1902), что прочность надкислот и их солей находится в прямой зависимости от атомной массы образующих их элементов. Впервые получил (1898) пероксид и гидропероксид аммония и натриевую соль надборной кислоты — пербораль. Изучал состав различных метеоритов, условия образования природной соли, предложил ряд новых методов в аналитической химии.

За труд „О перекисях кислот“ в 1899 году Петербургская АН присудила Меликишвили и Л. В. Писаржевскому Ломоносовскую премию.

Имя Меликишвили присвоено (1929) Институту химии АН ГрузССР (с 1965 года Институт физической и органической химии).

В. А. Волков, Е. В. Вонский, Г. И. Кузнецова. Выдающиеся химики мира: Биографический справочник. — М.: Высшая школа, 1991. С. 293.
Биографический словарь деятелей естествознания и техники. Т. 2. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1958. С. 24.

Александръ СМИТЪ.

Введенiе въ неорганическую химiю.

 

Переводъ съ послѣдняго англiйскаго изданiя приватъ-доцента Императорскаго Новороссiйскаго Университета Я. П. Мосешвили и кандидата естественныхъ наукъ I. Л. Левинтова. Подъ редакцiей профессора Императорскаго Новороссiйскаго Университета П. Г. Меликова.

Въ англiйской и нѣмецкой научной литературѣ появлeнie книги Смита было встрѣчено чрезвычайно сочувственно. Такiе первоклассные ученые, какъ Лебъ, Оствальдъ и др., признали, что „Введенiе въ неорганическую химiю“ Смита обогащаетъ учебную литературу и въ ряду многочисленныхъ руководствъ по химiи должно занять особое, значительное мѣсто.

Въ самомъ дѣлѣ, книга Смита даетъ нѣчто новое, касается отчасти расположенiя матерiала, а главное — трактовки его. Физико-химическая точка зрѣнiя на процессы превращенiя вещества выдвинута на переднiй планъ. Однако, она не вытѣсняетъ и чисто химической точки зрѣнiя. Смитъ ни на минуту не оставляетъ почвы факта, эмпирiи, эксперимента; и въ то же время его „Введенiе“ является, какъ отмѣтилъ одинъ рецензентъ, попыткой рацiональнаго мышленiя о природѣ. Въ опредѣленiи характера химическихъ реакцiй, управляющихъ ими законовъ и т. д. онъ обнаруживаетъ тотъ критическiй духъ, который начинаетъ проникать въ науку подъ давленiемъ пересмотра физическихъ идей.

Фактическiй матерiалъ сопровождается теоретическими разъясненiями, чрезвычайно цѣнными. Главы о молекулярныхъ и атомныхъ вѣсахъ, химическомъ равновѣсiи, диссоцiацiи, электролизѣ читаются съ неослабѣвающимъ интересомъ, а теорiя iоновъ разсмотрѣна съ надлежащей тщательностью… Къ каждой главѣ книги приложены упражненiя, которыя даютъ возможность усвоить изложенное.

Само собою разумѣется, что появленiе книги Смита въ русскомъ переводѣ, безукоризненно сдѣланномъ, можно только привѣтствовать. Трудъ Смита будетъ одинаково полезенъ и учащимся, и учащимъ.

Н. Б. Рѣчь, 10 января 1911.


Этотъ учебникъ стоитъ вполнѣ на уровнѣ современной науки, несмотря на то, что предназначенъ для первоначальнаго ознакомленiя съ химiей.

П. Природа и Люди, № 49, 1911.

1916 годъ. 2-е изданiе, исправленное. XVI+840 стр. 8°. Съ 107 рисунками.

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© 2008—2008 Фонд „Математические этюды“. Коммерческое использование запрещено.
Поддержка: Фонд „Династия“, Математический институт им. В. А. Стеклова РАН.
Идея: Николай Андреев. Реализация: Роман Кокшаров.

© 2008—2008 Фонд „Математические этюды“.
Коммерческое использование запрещено.

Поддержка: Фонд „Династия“,
Математический институт им. В. А. Стеклова Российской академии наук.

Идея: Николай Андреев.
Реализация: Роман Кокшаров.