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Mathesis
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Frederick SODDY
02.09.1877, Истборн — 22.09.1956

Английский физик и химик, один из пионеров радиоактивности, член Лондонского королевского общества (1910). Окончил Оксфордский университет (1898). В 1900—1903 годах работал в МакГиллском университете (Монреаль), в 1903—1914 годах — в университете Глазго, в 1914—1919 годах — профессор Абердинского университета, в 1919—1936 годах — Оксфордского.

Работы посвящены радиоактивности, химии изотопов, атомной и ядерной физике, истории физики. Совместно с Э. Резерфордом (1902) открыл новый радиоактивный элемент торий‑Х (радий‑224) и доказал химическую инертность двух радиоактивных газов — радона‑220 и радона‑222. Вместе с Э. Резерфордом разработал в 1902—1903 годах теорию радиоактивного распада и сформулировал закон радиоактивных превращений, выразив его в математической форме. Ввёл понятие „период полураспада“. Вместе с У. Рамзаем методом спектроскопии доказал в 1903 году наличие гелия в продуктах излучения радия (образование гелия из радона). Доказал связь семейств актиния и урана. Сформулировал (1911) альфа-правило. Независимо от К. Фаянса установил в 1913 году правило смещения при радиоактивном распаде (закон Содди—Фаянса). Ввёл (1913) понятие об изотопах и доказал существование стабильных изотопов у свинца, предсказал (1917) изомеры. Экспериментально доказал (1915), что радий образуется из урана. Совместно с Д. Крэнстоном и независимо от О. Гана и Л. Мейтнер открыл (1917) протактиний. В честь Содди назван минерал соддит (силикат урана).

Работы относятся также к математике и механике (1921). Занимался исследованием социальных, экономических и политических проблем.

Нобелевская премия по химии (1921). Иностранный член-корреспондент АН СССР (1924), член Шведской Академии наук и Академии деи Линчеи.

Ю. А. Храмов. Физики: Биографический справочник. — М.: Наука, 1983. С. 250—251.
В. А. Волков, Е. В. Вонский, Г. И. Кузнецова. Выдающиеся химики мира: Биографический справочник. — М.: Высшая школа, 1991. С. 412—413.
Биографический словарь деятелей естествознания и техники. Т. 2. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1958. С. 231—232.

1881 — 1944

Российский физик.

Окончил с дипломом 1‑й степени физико-математический факультет Московского университета в 1904 году и оставлен при кафедре физики для подготовки к профессорскому званию. В 1906 году назначен на должность ассистента (лаборанта) кафедры физики Одесских высших женских курсов, где работал до 1913 года, а затем был избран преподавателем физики и секретарём физико-математического факультета этих же курсов, где проработал до 1920 года. В 1910 году получил учёное звание приват-доцента физико-математического факультета Новороссийского университета. В 1917 году избран штатным доцентом кафедры физики Новороссийского университета. В 1920 году утверждён проректором университета. В 1921 году назначен профессором кафедры физики Одесского химико-фармацевтического института. В 1925 году утверждён профессором по кафедре физики Одесского медицинского института. По совместительству с 1933 года работал профессором, заведующим кафедрой теоретической физики Одесского университета, института инженеров связи (с 1937 года), заведующим отделом и заместителем директора физического института (с 1935 года), заведующим кафедрой теоретической физики физико-математического института.

Професори Одеського (Новоросiйського) унiверситету: Бiогр. слов. Т. 4: Р—Я. — Одеса, 2000. С. 314—316.

Фредерикъ СОДДИ.

Радiй и его разгадка.

 

Переводъ съ англiйскаго подъ редакцiей лаборанта Императорскаго Новороссiйскаго Университета Д. Д. Хмырова.

Выдающiяся качества этой книги были нами указаны… Переводъ никакихъ замѣчанiй не вызываетъ. Огромное значенiе радiоактивныхъ явленiй и тотъ интересъ, который вызвало ихъ открытiе, даютъ право надѣяться, что переводъ найдетъ у насъ широкiй кругъ читателей.

Проф. О. Хвольсонъ. Журналъ Министерства Народнаго Просвещенiя, октябрь 1911.


Книга относится къ числу тѣхъ чрезвычайно цѣнныхъ и рѣдкихъ сочиненiй, которыя написаны большимъ знатокомъ и выдающимся дѣятелемъ въ разсматриваемой области, — при томъ съ глубокимъ вниманiемъ къ запросамъ всякаго „образованнаго“ человѣка. Не прибѣгая къ математическимъ формуламъ и выкладкамъ, конечно, неизбѣжнымъ при болѣе спецiальномъ знакомствѣ съ дѣломъ, — авторъ въ увлекательномъ изложенiи вводитъ читателя въ необыкновенно заманчивую область, очерчиваемую явленiями атомнаго распада и радiоактивности.

Книга снабжена многими фототипическими снимками съ натуры. Пepeводъ ея производитъ въ общемъ хорошее впечатлѣнiе.

Н. Дрентельнъ. Педагогическiй Сборникъ, мартъ 1911.

1910 годъ. VII+190 стр. 8°. Съ 31 рисункомъ.

1915 годъ. XVI+185 стр. 8°. Съ 33 рисунками.

1923 год. 3-е издание. Под названием „Радий и строение атома“.

© 2008—2008 Фонд „Математические этюды“. Коммерческое использование запрещено.
Поддержка: Фонд „Династия“, Математический институт им. В. А. Стеклова РАН.
Идея: Николай Андреев. Реализация: Роман Кокшаров.

© 2008—2008 Фонд „Математические этюды“.
Коммерческое использование запрещено.

Поддержка: Фонд „Династия“,
Математический институт им. В. А. Стеклова Российской академии наук.

Идея: Николай Андреев.
Реализация: Роман Кокшаров.